医学博士外语模拟试卷答案2

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短对话听力---为题目类型
(A)Cough or breath.
(B)Take a walk.
(C)Jump.
(D)Spit.
1.
(A)His touch on the woman's sprained ankle got her hurt.
(B)He was not gentle enough to the woman.
(C)He said something impolite to the woman.
(D)He made a mistaken diagnosis.
2.
(A)ENT.
(B)Ophthalmology.
(C)Obstetrics.
(D)Brain surgery.
3.
(A)She' d rather not discuss her problems.
(B)She has been healthy.
(C)It' s hard for her to explain her problems.
(D)She' s sorry she didn' t come back sooner.
4.
(A)Her son' s falling down when playing.
(B)Her son' s elbow may have been broken.
(C)Her son may have a trouble with a stiff arm.
(D)She didn't know what to do with her son' s complaint.
(A)History.
(B)Geography.
(C)Mathematics.
(D)Art.
6.
(A)Logic.
(B)Reasoning.
(C)Deduction.
(D)Analysis.
7.
(A)A group of pioneers survived their first year from severe winter.
(B)A group of Native Americans survived their first year.
(C)A group of settlers gave thanks for God' s generosity.
(D)A group of Indians worshiped God in their own way.
8.
(A)Triumph.
(B)Significant.
(C)A sense of burning.
(D)Pretty tired.
9.
(A)Talent and humor.
(B)Energy and love.
(C)Creative and courage.
(D)Talent and humanity.
(A)He wasn' t sure he' d enjoy it, but he found the music easy to enjoy.
(B)He wasn't sure he' d like it, but the music made him dance.
(C)The music was too terrible to bear.
(D)He knew he' d like the music and he did.
11.
(A)He thought it was very serious.
(B)He didn' t think it was that serious.
(C)He thinks it is worth getting a second opinion.
(D)He is not surprised, since he thought it was quite bad.
12.
(A)He didn't want the woman to have a lot of pain.
(B)He admits he doesn't look good on that day.
(C)He doesn' t want the woman to catch him.
(D)He doesn' t want the woman to contract the disease.
13.
(A)The afternoon will be less crowded.
(B)The doctors are not well trained.
(C)It's a busy year for the clinic.
(D)A lot of people are sick during this season.
14.
(A)In a ward.
(B)In an operating room.
(C)In an emergency room.
(D)In an injection room.
短文听力---为题目类型
(A)Because he had felt severe pain on both sides of the abdomen.
(B)Because he could not stand the intolerable pain in the back.
(C)Because he had brought up what he had.
(D)Because he has got diarrhea.
16.
(A)His time was fully occupied.
(B)He had some urgent cases to deal with.
(C)His boss asked him to do extra work.
(D)Two tablets of analgesics killed his pain.
17.
(A)First in the right abdomen and then it went to the lower abdomen.
(B)First in the lower abdomen and then it shifted to the right lower abdomen.
(C)First in the left abdomen and then it shifted to the right lower abdomen.
(D)First in the upper abdomen and then it shifted to the right lower abdomen.
18.
(A)He has got acute appendicitis.
(B)He has got acute diarrhea.
(C)He has a duodenal ulcer.
(D)He has got an acute gastric ulcer.
19.
(A)He will go through the formalities of admittance to hospital.
(B)He will go to the operating room.
(C)He will go to the outpatient department.
(D)He will go to the inpatient department.
(A)Surgery can cure all back pains.
(B)Back pain is psychological.
(C)Back pain has been getting better in America.
(D)Sitting is easier on the back than standing.
21.
(A)More people spend more time in chairs.
(B)The surgery does not fit the patients much.
(C)The 180° shift in people's attitude to back pain.
(D)Bed-rest is too short.
22.
(A)No role.
(B)A small role.
(C)A declining role.
(D)A major role.
23.
(A)Beds are not good for backs.
(B)Muscle's strength declines.
(C)No surgery is needed in most cases.
(D)They need to do more walking.
24.
(A)How depression causes back pain.
(B)How back pain causes depression.
(C)The research on back pain.
(D)The relationship between depression and chronic back pain.
(A)Professor Kaplan.
(B)A university technician.
(C)A lab instructor.
(D)A specialist in the history of science.
26.
(A)At the beginning.
(B)In the middle.
(C)Near the end.
(D)During the final exam.
27.
(A)To explain the purpose of the notebooks.
(B)To stress the importance of safety procedures.
(C)To tell them where to buy safety equipment.
(D)To help them to understand their lab results.
28.
(A)Protective goggles.
(B)Eye glasses.
(C)Running shoes.
(D)Long scarves.
29.
(A)To illustrate what a great scientist he was.
(B)To explain why lab equipment must be cleaned carefully.
(C)To emphasize the need for proper precautions.
(D)To demonstrate how theoretical chemistry has advanced since his day.
选词填空---为题目类型
31.The pharmaceutical company insisted that its testing of new drugs was quite______, more rigorous than the industry standard.
(A)stringent
(B)recessive
(C)obtrusive
(D)traumatic
32.The singer' s performance was so exciting that many of his fans were______enthusiasm.
(A)carried away with
(B)moved to
(C)taken aback with
(D)stirred up with
33.The sugar dissolved in water gradually; finally all that remained was an almost______residue on the bottom of the glass.
(A)fragrant
(B)imperceptible
(C)glassy
(D)opaque
34.The judge's published opinions, though sophisticated and subtle, were undeniably______: they left no doubt of her intention.
(A)ambiguous
(B)unequivocal
(C)tenuous
(D)representative
35.While many consumer electronics are supplanted in a very short time by newer technologies, it will be many years before the home computer becomes______.
(A)obsolete
(B)exceptional
(C)disparaged
(D)deplorable
36.His ideas are invariably condemned as______by his colleagues.
(A)imaginative
(B)ingenious
(C)impractical
(D)theoretical
37.The majority of nurses are women, but in the higher ranks of the medical profession women are in a______.
(A)minority
(B)scarcity
(C)rarity
(D)minimum
38.Professor Johnson' s retirement______from next January.
(A)carries into effect
(B)takes effect
(C)has effect
(D)puts into effect
39.Mr. Brown' s condition looks very serious and it is doubtful if he will______.
(A)pull back
(B)pull up
(C)pull through
(D)pull out
40.Since the early nineties, the trend in most businesses has been toward on-demand, always-available products and services that suit the customer' s______rather than the company' s.
(A)benefit
(B)availability
(C)suitability
(D)convenience
近义词替换---为题目类型
41.Many of these writers used to study in writing clinics.
(A)hospitals
(B)circles
(C)workshops
(D)firms
42.My brain may be old, but it is not addled.
(A)confused
(B)rotten
(C)stupid
(D)disorder
43.I try to be broad-minded but do feel antipathy toward people who are dirty and untidy.
(A)sympathy
(B)dislike
(C)antiquity
(D)regard
44.It was his firm conviction that every effort should be made to preserve world peace.
(A)doubt
(B)belief
(C)persuasion
(D)enthusiasm
45.The boy showed cleverness in making toys out of scraps of discarded wood.
(A)ingenuity
(B)generosity
(C)frankness
(D)skillful
46.One of the many resulting effects of adrenalin on the body is the stimulation of the heart.
(A)spurring
(B)depressing
(C)inhibiting
(D)retarding
47.Laboratory tests are positive for HIV and show a low lymphocyte count.
(A)affirmative
(B)approving
(C)existent
(D)undeniable
48.Illness, injury, love, lost moments of true greatness and sheer stupidity-all occur to test the limits of your soul.
(A)fine
(B)sudden
(C)finite
(D)absolute
49.Add 1ml solution C (Nessler's reagent) to the 25ml water sample. Then agitate the mixture for 20 seconds.
(A)stir
(B)tame
(C)stamp
(D)probed
50.We believe—mistakenly, all too often—that the knowledge or insight we will gain from the past will give us what we need to change our behaviors, thoughts and feelings today.
(A)induction
(B)perception
(C)interpretation
(D)penetration
完形填空---为题目类型
America is changing its eating habits. Though medical evidence mounts that we are【C1】______ what we eat, consuming a healthier diet has become almost a national passion in the United States. The food-for-fitness phenomenon began in the late 70's when a U. S. Senate committee leading【C2】______ the conclusion that six out of ten leading causes of death such as heart disease and cancer might【C3】______ diet. The government issued dietary guidelines【C4】______ Americans to eat a variety of food, maintain proper weight, and limit intake of fat, salt, and sugar. For most Americans what to eat is a matter of personal choice,【C5】______ one of supply. An excellent nationwide food distribution system assures that fresh【C6】______ is readily available in all parts of the country,【C7】______ the season. Taking advantage of this abundance, many people are forsaking traditional meat-and-potatoes fare【C8】______ lighter meals of salads, fruits, and vegetables. One of the most significant trends in the American way of eating is the healthful change in restaurant food. One of【C9】______ two meals in the United States is eaten outside the home. Restaurants are making special efforts to provide low-fat, low-salt, and low-calorie items. Salad bars,【C10】______ with fresh greens and raw fruits and vegetables, are found everywhere.
51.【C1】
52.【C2】
53.【C3】
54.【C4】
55.【C5】
56.【C6】
57.【C7】
58.【C8】
59.【C9】
60.【C10】
阅读理解---为题目类型
"The Heart of the Matter", the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities, and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report's failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good. In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. " In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among the commission's 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism. The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students' ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs. Unfortunately, despite the report are general "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don' t know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing "progressive", or left-liberal propaganda. Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets and self-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation. The MAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate.
62.According to Paragraph 1, what is the author's attitude toward the AAAS' s report?
(A)Critical.
(B)Appreciative.
(C)Contemptuous.
(D)Tolerant.
63.Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to______.
(A)retain people's interest in liberal education
(B)define the government' s role in education
(C)keep a leading position in liberal education
(D)safeguard individuals' rights to education
64.According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests______.
(A)an exclusive study of American history
(B)a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects
(C)the application of emerging technologies
(D)funding for the study of foreign languages
65.The author implies in Paragraph 5 that professors are______.
(A)supportive of free markets
(B)cautious about intellectual investigation
(C)conservative about public policy
(D)biased against classical liberal ideas
66.Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
(A)Ways to Grasp "The Heart of the Matter"
(B)Illiberal Education and "The Heart of the Matter"
(C)The AAAS's Contribution to Liberal Education
(D)Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education
During the past 30 years or so, health care has increasingly become a form of business. In addition, the environment surrounding health care has been greatly altered by the advent of more sophisticated medical technologies and increased specialization. It is no longer true to say that doctors regard their profession as a sacred calling, and while the doctor-patient relationship still remains, it is not the relationship based solely on trust which it used to be. Of course there are many doctors who have endeavored to increase the transparency of their behavior as medical professionals, and patients can receive effective treatment when such doctors work closely together and share notes. An example of such cooperation can be found in the field of remote health care, which has been introduced on an experimental basis in several regions. Since most medical specialists live in cities, patients who live in the country have to travel a long distance to consult a specialist. This is especially hard on the elderly, both financially and physically. Through a computer network, patients who live in the country can consult a medical specialist in the city, tell him their symptoms, and receive advice without the need for a journey to the specialist's office. Also, with several doctors being assigned to a single patient, the transparency of each doctor's behavior is further ensured. On the other hand, however, it is also true that remote health consultation is not generally regarded as a form of medical treatment. For any sort of consultation to be regarded as medical treatment, most people feel that the patient must actually visit the doctor, and undergo an examination by the doctor in person. Remote health care is essentially a means for doctors to work as a team. In order for this to be practicable, it is important to establish a system whereby financial support can be extended to a doctor who as a member of a medical team provides only information. Establishment of such a system will further advance the cause of "free access to information" in the health care field.
68.Which is the best title for the passage?
(A)Doctors: Patients' Reliable Friends
(B)Health Care in a Dilemma
(C)Information Technology Applied to Medical Services
(D)Doctor-patient Relationships
69.As a result of the altered environment surrounding health care, medical practice______.
(A)has experienced great changes
(B)has changed its nature
(C)has abolished the doctor-patient relationship
(D)has lost its trust on the part of doctors and patients
70.When they work closely together and share notes, doctors can______.
(A)work in a remote area
(B)transparentize their behavior
(C)set up a relationship with patients
(D)treat financially and physically disadvantaged patients
71.The writer urges that______.
(A)remote health care be implemented
(B)doctors be sent to the country
(C)people turn down traditional medical treatment
(D)a system offering doctor's financial aid be set up
72.It can be concluded that______.
(A)information will play an important part in the field of medical treatment
(B)medical professionals will be more specialized
(C)the difference between cities and the country will never be eliminated
(D)it is impossible for patients to be treated without seeing doctors themselves
Among all the malignancies, lung cancer is the biggest killer; more than 100 000 Americans die of the disease. Giving up smoking is one of obvious ways to reduce the risk, but another answer may lie in the kitchen. According to a new report, even heavy smokers may be protected from developing lung cancer by eating a daily portion of carrots, spinach or any other vegetable or fruit containing a form of vitamin A called carotene. The finding, published in THE LANCET, is part of a long-range investigation of diet and disease. Since 1957, some American researchers have monitored the dietary habits and medical histories of 2 000 middle-aged men employed by the Western Electric Co. in Chicago. Led by Dr. Richard Shekelle of St. Luke's Medical Center, the researchers recently began to sort out the links between the subjects' dietary patterns and cancer. Other studies of animals and humans have suggested that vitamin A offer some protection against lung cancer. The correlation seemed logical, explains Shekelle, since vitamin A is essential for the growth of the epithelial tissue that lines the airways of the lungs. Vegetables: But the earlier research did not distinguish between the two different forms of the vitamin. "Preformed" vitamin A, known as retinol, is found mainly in liver and dairy products like milk, cheese, butter and eggs. But vitamin A is also made in the body from carotene, which is abundant in a variety of vegetables and fruits, including carrots, spinach, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and apples. In the study, Shekelle and his colleagues found little correlation between the incidence of lung cancer and the consumption of foods containing preformed vitamin A. But when they examined the data on carotene intake, they discovered a significant relationship. Among the 488 men who had the lowest level of carotene consumption, there were 14 cases of lung cancer, in a group of the same size that ate the most carotene, only two cases developed. The apparent protective effect of carotene held up even for long-time smokers—but to a lesser degree. Further studies will be necessary before the link between lung cancer and carotene can be firmly established. In the meantime, researchers warn against taking large numbers of vitamin A pills, because the tablets contain a form of the chemical that can be extremely toxic in high doses. Instead, they advise a well-balanced diet that includes goods rich in carotene. For a smoker, a half-cup of carrots every day might possibly make the difference between life and death.
74.The word "malignancy" ( Line 1, Para. 1) most probably refers to______.
(A)cancer
(B)sickness
(C)vitamins
(D)disease
75.Preformed vitamin A is NOT found in______.
(A)milk
(B)eggs
(C)apple
(D)cheese
76.Carotene is present in all of the following EXCEPT______.
(A)tomatoes
(B)carrots
(C)squash
(D)butter
77.Among the groups studied, who had the most cases of lung cancer?
(A)Those with the lowest level of carotene intake.
(B)Those with the highest level of carotene intake.
(C)Those who ate only foods containing carotene.
(D)Those with the lowest intake of carrots.
78.What is needed to firmly establish the link between carotene and lung cancer?
(A)Further study.
(B)More money.
(C)More cases of lung cancer.
(D)More people willing to eat carrots.
Imagine eating everything delicious you want—with none of the fat. That would be great, wouldn't it? New "fake fat" products appeared on store shelves in the United States recently, but not everyone is happy about it. Makers of the products, which contain a compound called olestra, say food manufacturers can now eliminate fat from certain foods. Critics, however, say the new compound can rob the body of essential vitamins and nutrients (营养物) and can also cause unpleasant side effects in some people. So it's up to decide whether the new fat-free products taste good enough to keep eating. Chemists discovered olestra in the late 1960s, when they were searching for a fat that could be digested by infants more easily. Instead of finding the desired fat, the researchers created a fat that can't be digested at all. Normally, special chemicals in the intestines (肠) "grab" molecules of regular fat and break them down so they can be used by the body. A molecule of regular fat is made up of three molecules of substances called fatty acids. The fatty acids are absorbed by the intestines and bring with them the essential vitamins A, D, E, and K. When fat molecules are present in the intestines with any of those vitamins, the vitamins attach to the molecules and are carried into the bloodstream. Olestra, which is made from six to eight molecules of fatty acids, is too large for the intestines to absorb. It just slides through the intestines without being broken down. Manufacturers say it' s that ability to slide unchanged through the intestines that make olestra as valuable as a fat substitute. It provides consumers with the taste of regular fat without any bad effects on the body. But critics say olestra can prevent vitamins A, D, E, and K from being absorbed. It can also prevent the absorption of carotenoids (类胡萝卜素 ), compounds that may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, etc.. Manufacturers are adding vitamins A, D, E, and K as well as carotenoids to their products now. Even so some nutritionists are still concerned that people might eat unlimited amounts of food made with the fat substitute without worrying about how many calories they are consuming.
80.We learn from the passage that olestra is a substance that______.
(A)contains plenty of nutrients
(B)renders foods calorie-free while retaining their vitamins
(C)makes foods easily digestible
(D)makes foods fat-free while keeping them delicious
81.The result of the search for an easily digestible fat turned out to be______.
(A)commercially useless
(B)just as anticipated
(C)somewhat controversial
(D)quite unexpected
82.Which of the following is NOT true about the fatty acid?
(A)The fatty acid is made up of three molecules of substances.
(B)The fatty acid can be absorbed by the intestines.
(C)The fatty acid brings the essential vitamins A, D, E and K to the intestines.
(D)Olestra is made from six to eight molecules of fatty acids.
83.Olestra is different from ordinary fats in that______.
(A)it passes through the intestines without being absorbed
(B)it facilitates the absorption of vitamins by the body
(C)it helps reduce the incidence of heart disease
(D)it prevents excessive intake of vitamins
84.Why are nutritionists concerned about adding vitamins to olestra?
(A)It may lead to the over-consumption of vitamins.
(B)People may be induced to eat more than is necessary.
(C)The function of the intestines may be weakened.
(D)It may trigger a new wave of fake food production.
What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, medicine or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live. Many people believe, however, that progress depends on two different aspects of science. The first of these is the application of the machines, products and systems of applied knowledge that scientists and technologists develop. Through technology, science improves the structure of society and helps man to gain increasing control over his environment. The second aspect is the application by all members of society of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work. What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity—he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation, and his curiosity makes him look for underlying relationships even if the data available seems to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves. He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies logical thought to the observations he makes. He utilizes the facts he observes to the fullest extent. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum. He is skeptical—he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available—and therefore rejects authority as the sole basis for truth. Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively to verify them. Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others, but also of his own, since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientific instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation. Lastly, he is highly imaginative since he often has to look for relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he needs imagination if he wants to make hypotheses of how processes work and how events take place. These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.
86.Many people believe that science helps society to progress through______.
(A)applied knowledge
(B)more than one aspect
(C)technology only
(D)the use of machines
87.Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about curiosity?
(A)It gives the scientist confidence and pleasure in work.
(B)It gives rise to interest in problems that are unexplained.
(C)It leads to efforts to investigate potential connections.
(D)It encourages the scientist to look for new ways of acting.
88.According to the passage, a successful scientist would not______.
(A)easily believe in unchecked statements
(B)easily criticize other' s research work
(C)always use his imagination in work
(D)always use evidence from observation
89.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)Application of technology.
(B)Progress in modern society.
(C)Scientists' ways of thinking and acting.
(D)How to become a successful scientist.
90.What is the author's attitude towards the topic?
(A)Critical.
(B)Objective.
(C)Biased.
(D)Unclear.
The discovery of the Antarctic not only proved one of the most interesting of all geographical adventures, but created what might be called "the heroic age of Antarctic exploration". By their tremendous heroism, men such as Shackleton, Scott, and Amundsen caused a new continent to emerge from the shadows and yet that heroic age, little more than a century old, is already passing. Modern science and inventions are revolutionizing the techniques of former explorers, and, although still calling for courage and feats of endurance, future journey into these icy wastes will probably depend on motor vehicles equipped with caterpillar traction rather than on the dogs that earlier discoverers found so invaluable. Few realize that this Antarctic continent is almost equal in size to South America, and enormous field of work awaits geographers and prospectors. The coasts of this continent remain to be accurately charted, and the mapping of the whole of the interior presents formidable task to the cartographers who undertake the work. Once their labors are completed, it will be possible to prospect the vast natural resources which scientists believe will furnish one of the large treasure hoards of metals and minerals the world has yet known, and almost inexhaustible sources of copper, coal, uranium, and many other ores will become available to man. Such discoveries will usher in an era of practical exploitation of the Antarctic wastes. The polar darkness which hides this continent for the six winter months will be defeated by huge batteries of light, and make possible the establishing of airfields for the future intercontinental air service by making these areas as light as day. Present flying routes will completely change, for the Antarctic refueling bases will make flight from Australia to South America comparatively easy over the 5 000 miles journey. The climate is not likely to offer an insuperable problem, for the explorer Admiral Byrd has shown that the climate is possible even for men completely untrained for expeditions into those frozen wastes. Some of his party were men who had never seen snow before, and yet he records that they survived the rigors of the Antarctic climate comfortably, so that, provided that the appropriate installations are made, we may assume that human beings from all countries could live there safely. Byrd even affirms that it is probably the most health climate in the world, for the intense cold of thousands of years has sterilized this continent, and rendered it absolutely germfree, with the consequences that ordinary and extraordinary sicknesses and disease from which man suffers in other zones with different climates are here utterly unknown. There exist no problems of conservation and preservation of food supplies, for the latter keep indefinitely without any signs of deterioration; it may even be that later generations will come to regard the Antarctic as the natural storehouse for the whole world. Plans are already on foot to set up permanent bases on the shores of this continent, and what so few years ago was regarded as a " dead continent" now promises to be a most active centre of human life and endeavor.
92.When did man begin to explore the Antarctic?
(A)About 100 years ago.
(B)In this century.
(C)At the beginning of the 19th century.
(D)In 1798.
93.What must the explorers be, even though they have modern equipment and techniques?
(A)Brave and tough.
(B)Stubborn and arrogant.
(C)Well-liked and humorous.
(D)Stout and smart.
94.What is planned for the continent?
(A)Building dams along the coasts.
(B)Setting up several summer resorts along the coasts.
(C)Mapping the coast and the whole territory.
(D)Setting up permanent bases on the coasts.
95.What kind of metals and minerals can we find in the Antarctic?
(A)Magnesite, coal and oil.
(B)Copper, coal and uranium.
(C)Silver, natural gas and uranium.
(D)Aluminum, copper and natural gas.
96.The most healthy climate in the world is______.
(A)in South America
(B)in the Arctic Region
(C)in the Antarctic Continent
(D)in the Atlantic Ocean
写作---为题目类型
98. Directions:In this part there is an essay in Chinese.Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET.Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the essay. 吸烟与健康 吸烟是一种不健康的生活习惯,吸烟对人体的危害有:吸烟可以破坏人体的营养成分。吸烟可以阻止人体对维生素C的吸收,尼古丁对维生素C有直接的破坏作用。人体如果长期缺乏维生素C,就有得坏血病的可能。吸烟可以诱发多种疾病。由于吸入体内的烟对呼吸道、消化道等器官有恶性刺激作用,因而有人认为它是胃及十二指肠溃疡、呼吸道感染甚至为口、唇、舌、食道、呼吸道等癌症的诱发因素。吸烟可以直接毒杀生命。动物实验获得了惊人结果:再大的马也经不住注射8滴尼古丁,就会很快死亡;活蹦乱跳的狗,用不了一滴尼古丁注射到静脉里就可以将它置于死地;另外,在让某些动物长期吸烟后,可以发现其有血管收缩甚至硬化的明显趋向。 吸烟对人体健康来说有百害而无一利。所以要尽量戒除或少吸。主动吸烟的害处:吸烟是发生蛋白尿的独立因素。年青糖尿病人蛋白尿的产生与发展、肾疾病的恶化均与吸烟有关。在吸烟者中,蛋白尿和视网膜病变都比不吸烟者进展更快,停止吸烟的病人蛋白尿迅速改善。最可怕的是,由于烟中含有苯和焦油,还有多种放射性物质能致癌,90%的肺癌患者为吸烟引起的。男性膀胱癌病例至少有60%是由吸烟引起的,还有口腔癌和喉癌等。过期的烟草产品因含有霉菌,使人得癌的危险更大。 吸烟上瘾,吸烟量不断增加,吸烟的费用也与日俱增。日积月累,成为一笔很大的开销。本可用于正途的钱,如增加营养,添置衣物,教育开支等,都要缩减,甚至是放弃了。农民、工人等吸烟就造成更大的经济压力和身体损害,可谓雪上加霜。 吸烟上瘾的人手足自困,失去了个人自由选择的空间。他出门前要费心查看个人的香烟、打火机和买烟的零钱是否齐全,前往某处先要了解该地是否禁烟,从事某些活动,也得要及时找到可以点烟之所,才感到心安理得……这种种考虑和限制都增加了吸烟者的心事和约束,而降低了他的自由和选择。 说来说去,吸烟者都已自贬一级,沦为香烟的“阶下囚”了。这个无形的损失和实质的限制有多么大!社会在不断进步,吸烟有害和吸烟失礼的认识在不断加强。烟民聚集之处多是知识程度和社会地位低下的人群,文明世界的上流社会里吸烟行为已难以立足。有社会地位的人如不能洁身自好,而以吸烟者的面貌公开出现,便是自损形象和自贬身价了。室内吸烟,烟灰四散,污染空气,谁在现场谁受害。室外吸烟,烟头遍地,破坏环境的清洁和卫生。所以,无论是在哪里吸烟都是污染环境,可谓一无是处。 由吸烟而引起的各种疾病不是不可逆转的,只要戒烟后,都能改善或痊愈,恢复健康。一般吸烟者对吸烟的种种有害之处大多是一知半解,或不求甚解。他们要维持自己无法戒除或不想戒除的吸烟习惯,就不会对吸烟有害做深入切实的探讨。唯有吸烟者对吸烟有害在认识上迈进一步,他们才会兴起戒烟念头,最后走上戒烟成功之路。

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