2017年医学博士外语真题试卷二答案

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选词填空---为题目类型
1.Tennessee's population is nearly two-fifths rural, and no single city or group of cities______the state.
(A)dominates
(B)manages
(C)manipulates
(D)controls
2.How is it possible that such_____deception has come to take place right under our noses?
(A)obvious
(B)significant
(C)necessary
(D)widespread
3.Now a paper in Science argues that organic chemicals in the rock come mostly from_____on earth rather than bacteria on Mars.
(A)configuration
(B)constitution
(C)condemnation
(D)contamination
4.Nothing is so uncertain as the fashion market where one style______over another before being replaced.
(A)dominates
(B)manipulates
(C)overwhelms
(D)prevails
5.Danish research shows that the increase in obese people in Denmark is roughly_____to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(A)equivalent
(B)temporary
(C)permanent
(D)relevant
6.Ted was felled by a massive stroke that affected his balance and left him barely able to speak_____.
(A)bluntly
(B)intelligibly
(C)reluctantly
(D)ironically
7.In a technology-intensive enterprise, computers______all processes of the production and management.
(A)dominate
(B)overwhelm
(C)substitute
(D)imitate
8.Rheumatologist advises that those with ongoing aches and pains first seek medical help to______ the problem.
(A)affiliate
(B)alleviate
(C)aggravate
(D)accelerate
9.We are much quicker to respond, and we respond far too quickly by giving_____to our anger.
(A)vent
(B)impulse
(C)temper
(D)offence
10.Although most dreams apparently happen_____, dream activity may be provoked by external influences.
(A)spontaneously
(B)simultaneously
(C)homogeneously
(D)instantaneously
近义词替换---为题目类型
11.Then a strong current of electrons follows that path from the cloud to the ground, and it is that current that lights the channel as the lightning we see.
(A)opens
(B)completes
(C)illuminates
(D)electrifies
12.He has been on hormone alternate therapy for four years and looks fantastic.
(A)successor
(B)replacement
(C)surrogate
(D)choice
13.It had over 2, 000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings.
(A)ancient
(B)carefully
(C)very large
(D)carefully protected
14.When patients spend extended periods in hospital, they tend to become overly dependent and lose interest in taking care of themselves.
(A)extremely
(B)exclusively
(C)exactly
(D)explicitly
15.Attempts to restrict parking in the city centre have further aggravated the problem of traffic congestion.
(A)ameliorated
(B)aggregated
(C)deteriorated
(D)duplicated
16.The anxious parent was vigilant over the injured child in spite of a full array of emergency room of doctors and nurses.
(A)preoccupied
(B)unwary
(C)watchful
(D)dozing
17.It was reported that bacteria contaminated up to 80% of domestic retail raw chicken in the United States.
(A)inflamed
(B)inflicted
(C)infected
(D)infiltrated
18.Researchers recently ran the numbers on gun violence in the United States and reported that right-to-carry-gun laws do not inhibit violent crime.
(A)curb
(B)induce
(C)lessen
(D)impel
19.Regardless of our uneasiness about stereotypes, numerous studies have shown clear difference between Chinese and western parenting.
(A)specifications
(B)sensations
(C)conventions
(D)conservations
20.The doctor vacillated so frequently on disease-prevention techniques that his colleagues accused him of inconsistency.
(A)wavered
(B)instigated
(C)experimented
(D)relied
完形填空---为题目类型
It was the kind of research that gave insight into how flu strains could mutate so quickly. (One theory behind the 1918 version's sudden demise after wreaking so much devastation was that it mutated to a nonlethal form. ) The same branch of research concluded in 2005 that the 1918 flu started in birds before passing to humans. Parsing this animal-human【C1】______could provide clues to【C2】______the next potential superflu, which already has a name: H5N1, also known as avian flu or bird flu. This potential killer also has a number: 59 percent. According to the World Health Organization, nearly three-fifths of the people who【C3】______H5N1 since 2003 died from the virus, which was first reported【C4】______humans in Hong Kong in 1997 before a more serious【C5】______occurred in Southeast Asia between 2003 and 2004. (It has since spread to Africa and Europe. ) Some researchers argue that those mortality numbers are exaggerated because WHO only【C6】______cases in which victims are sick enough to go to the hospital for treatment【C7】______. compare that to the worldwide mortality rate of the 1918 pandemic; it may have killed roughly 50 million people, but that was only 10 percent of the number of people infected, according to a 2006 estimate. H5N1's saving grace — and the only reason we're not running around masked up in public right now—is that the strain doesn't jump from birds to humans, or from humans to humans, easily. There have been just over 600 cases (and 359 deaths) since 2003. But【C8】______its lethality, and the chance it could turn into something far more transmissible, one might expect H5N1 research to be exploding, with labs【C9】______the virus's molecular components to understand how it spreads between animals and【C10】______to humans, and hoping to discover a vaccine that could head off a pandemic.
21.【C1】
(A)interact
(B)interface
(C)connection
(D)contamination
22.【C2】
(A)stopping
(B)stopped
(C)have stopped
(D)stop
23.【C3】
(A)contacted
(B)contracted
(C)concentrated
(D)infected
24.【C4】
(A)on
(B)in
(C)of
(D)with
25.【C5】
(A)breakout
(B)take place
(C)happen
(D)outbreak
26.【C6】
(A)accounts
(B)numbers
(C)counts
(D)takes
27.【C7】
(A)Moreover
(B)Still
(C)Furthermore
(D)Thereafter
28.【C8】
(A)given
(B)giving
(C)to give
(D)speaking of
29.【C9】
(A)parsing
(B)parsed
(C)to parse
(D)having parsed
30.【C10】
(A)presently
(B)potentially
(C)potently
(D)importantly
阅读理解---为题目类型
Planes may account for only 2 per cent of the world's carbon emissions, but it is a figure destined to rise. The aviation industry is expanding at a dramatic rate, around 5 percent a year. Twice as many passengers are likely to be passing through British airports in 2020 compared with today, and three times by 2030. As the developed world acknowledges climate change warnings, the carbon emissions from other industries will fall. The aviation industry's output will therefore account for an even larger percentage of emissions. One calculation, by the Climate Change Research (CCR), suggests the U. K. aviation industry could end up accounting for every gram of our carbon quota by 2040. Such calculations suppose aircraft designers cannot clean up their act, a suggestion firmly rejected by experts who point to a massive research program aimed at cutting fuel use by planes by around 50 percent by 2020, a move that would also halve their carbon emissions. To reach that aim, a key factor will be lightweight composites, materials made of several components, including carbon fibres. These are as strong and flexible as metal but as light as plasti C. Planes such as the Airbus A340 are already made of material that is 10 percent carbon composite. This cuts weight, decreases fuel use and reduces carbon emission. The next generation of aircrafts, will make even more use of composites: a tremendous saving in weight, fuel and carbon. Then there is the simple matter of air traffic control. At present, individual countries have their own routes for aircraft crossing their airspaces. "Essentially aircraft travel on dog-legs across Europe, and that is very inefficient in terms of fuel use, " said Dr. John Green, of the Royal Aeronautical Society. "We need to rationalize air traffic control so that planes fly in straight, energy-efficient lines, an idea that is now being discussed in the EU. " Finally, there is aviation fuel. Making it ecologically friendly poses the greatest challenges of all. Biofuels can be used as petrol and diesel substitutes for cars and lorries, but not in planes. "Biofuel is essentially alcohol, and that burns at the wrong temperature for aircraft engines, " says Green. "We can use coal to make kerosene, which we could burn in aircraft engines, but that does not help the issue of global warming, of course. " But this does not stop scientists from dreaming. One idea, put forward by the U. S. geneticist Craig Venter last week, would be to create micro-organisms, fitted with artificial chromosomes, which could convert sunlight into fuels that could be burnt in aircraft. These would not involve burning fossil carbon and would be the perfect green fuel. It is still a far-off prospect but realistic, say biologists.
32.The fact that passengers passing British airports will double or even triple indicates that______.
(A)the British aviation industry is growing very rapidly
(B)more and more British people tend to choose flying when traveling
(C)the aviation industry develops much faster than other industries in developed countries
(D)the aviation industry will cause more pollutants when compared with other industries
33.The experts in aviation industry disapproved the claim by the CCR because______.
(A)the calculation of aviation industry's carbon emission is based on prediction instead of facts
(B)the figure calculated is much more than the experts in aviation industry expected
(C)airlines are also making great efforts to reduce their oil consumption and carbon emissions
(D)the experts didn't agree with the way of their calculation of the carbon emissions by planes
34.People are using more composites in making aircrafts mainly because______.
(A)composites themselves are very light, strong and as flexible as metal
(B)composites can reduce the plane weight leading to less fuel consumption and carbon emissions
(C)composites can cause less carbon emissions in the process of lying
(D)composites are less expensive than metal
35.In order to reduce carbon emissions, airlines can______.
(A)change air traffic routes to make it straight and shorter for a flight
(B)use lighter materials like composites in building a plane
(C)reduce the number of engines on a plane to cut weight
(D)produce environment-friendly fuels
36.According to the text, what can we learn about aviation fuels?
(A)Biofuels can be used as replacement for vehicles as well as planes.
(B)Neither biofuels nor coals can be used for planes.
(C)The idea of green fuel is to change solar energy into fuels.
(D)The idea of green-fuel, which is only an illusion, is challenged and doubted by scientists.
This issue of Science contains announcements for more than 100 different Gorgon Research Conferences, on topics that range from atomic physics to developmental biology. The brainchild (某人的主意) of Neil Gordon of Johns Hopkins University, these week-long meetings are designed to promote intimate, informal discussions of frontier science. Often confined to fewer than 125 attendees, they have traditionally been held in remote places with minimal distractions. Beginning in the early 1960s, I attended the summer Nucleic Acids Gordon Conference in rural New Hampshire, sharing austere (简朴的) dorm facilities in a private boy's school with randomly assigned roommates. As a beginning scientist, I found the question period after each talk especially fascinating, providing valuable insights into the personalities and ways of thinking of many senior scientists whom I had not encountered previously. Back then, there were no cellphones and no Internet, and all of the speakers seemed to stay for the entire week. During the long, session-free afternoons, graduate students mingled freely with professors. Many lifelong friendships were begun, and — as Gordon intended — new scientific collaborations began. Leap forward to today, and every scientist can gain immediate access to a vast store of scientific thought and to millions of other scientists via the Internet. Why, nevertheless, do in-person scientific meetings remain so valuable for a life in science? Part of the answer is that science works best when there is a deep mutual trust and understanding between the collaborators, which is hard to develop from a distance. But most important is the critical role that face-to-face scientific meetings play in stimulating a random collision of ideas and approaches. The best science occurs when someone combines the knowledge gained by other scientists in non-obvious ways to create a new understanding of how the world works. A successful scientist needs to deeply believe, whatever the problem being tackled, that there is always a better way to approach that problem than the path currently being taken. The scientist is then constantly on the alert for new paths to take in his or her work, which is essential for making breakthroughs. Thus, as much as possible, scientific meetings should be designed to expose the attendees to ways of thinking and techniques that are different from the ones that they already know.
38.Assembled at Gordon Research Conference are those who______.
(A)are physicists and biologists
(B)just start doing their sciences
(C)stay in the forefront of science
(D)are accomplished senior scientists
39.Speaking of the summer Nucleic Acids Gordon Conference, the author thinks highly of______.
(A)the personalities of senior scientists
(B)the question period after each talk
(C)the austere facilities around
(D)the week-long duration
40.It can be inferred from the author that the value of the in-person scientific conference______.
(A)does not change with times
(B)can be explored online exclusively
(C)lies in exchanging the advances in life science
(D)is questioned in establishing a vast store of ideas
41.The author believes that the face-to-face scientific conferences can help the attendees better______.
(A)understand what making a breakthrough means to them
(B)expose themselves to novel ideas and new approaches
(C)foster the passion for doing science
(D)tackle the same problem in science
42.What would the author most probably talk about in the following paragraphs?
(A)How to explore scientific collaborations.
(B)How to make scientific breakthroughs.
(C)How to design scientific meetings.
(D)How to think like a genius.
Back in 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius realized that by burning coal we were adding carbon dioxide to the air, and that this would warm the Earth. But he mentioned the issue only in passing (顺便地) , for his calculations suggested it would not become a problem for thousands of years. Others thought that the oceans would soak up any extra CO2, so there was nothing much to worry about. That this latter argument has persisted to this day in some quarters highlights our species' propensity (倾向) to underestimate the scale of our impact on the planet. Even the Earth's vast oceans cannot suck up CO2 as quickly as we can produce it, and we now know the stored CO2 is acidifying the oceans, a problem in itself. Now a handful of researchers are warning that energy sources we normally think of as innocuous could affect the planet's climate too. If we start to extract immense amounts of power from the wind, for instance, it will have an impact on how warmth and water move around the planet, and thus on temperatures and rainfall. Just to be clear, no one is suggesting we should stop building wind farms on the basis of this risk. Aside from the huge uncertainties about the climatic effects of extracting power from the wind, our present and near-term usage is far too tiny to make any difference. For the moment, any negative consequences on the climate are massively outweighed by the effects of pumping out even more CO2. That poses by far the greater environmental threat; weaning ourselves off fossil fuels should remain the priority. Even so, now it is the time to start thinking about the long-term effects of the alternative energy sources we are turning to. Those who have already started to look at these issues report weary, indifferent or even hostile reactions to their work. That's understandable, but disappointing. These effects may be inconsequential, in which case all that will have been wasted is some research time that may well yield interesting insights anyway. Or they may turn out to be sharply negative, in which case the more notice we have, the better. It would be unfortunate to put it mildly, to spend countless trillions replacing fossil-fuel energy infrastructure (基础建设) only to discover that its successor (替代物) is also more damaging than it need be. These climatic effects may even be beneficial. The first, tentative models suggest that extracting large amounts of energy from high-altitude jet streams would cool the planet, counteracting the effects of rising greenhouse gases. It might even be possible to build an energy infrastructure that gives us a degree of control over the weather: turning off wind turbines here, capturing more of the sun's energy there. We may also need to rethink our long-term research priorities. The sun is ultimately the only source of energy that doesn't end up altering the planet's energy balance. So the best bet might be invest heavily in improving solar technology and energy storage—rather than in efforts to harness, say, nuclear fusion. For the moment, all of this remains supposition (推测) . But our species has a tendency to myopia. We have nothing to lose, and everything to gain by taking the long view for a change.
44.In the first two paragraphs, the author is trying to draw our attention to______.
(A)the escalating scale of the global warming
(B)the division of scientists over the issue of global warming
(C)reasons for us to worry about extra CO2 for the oceans
(D)the human tendency to underestimate the harmful effects on the planet
45.The author's illustration of wind-power extraction reflects______.
(A)the priority of protecting the environment
(B)the same human propensity as mentioned previously
(C)the best strategy of reducing the environmental threat
(D)the definite huge uncertainties about the climatic effects
46.The author argues that it would be unfortunate to replace fossil fuels only to find out that______.
(A)the successors are also damaging
(B)the countless trillions spent are wasted
(C)the alternative energy sources don't work
(D)the research invites indifferent or even hostile reactions
47.According to the author, the best strategy is______.
(A)to counteract the effects of rising greenhouse gases
(B)to develop a degree of control over the weather
(C)to extract large amounts of energy from wind
(D)to explore solar energy and its storage
48.It can be concluded from the passage that we need to take the long view on______.
(A)human existence on the planet
(B)humanity's energy supplies
(C)our environmental threats
(D)our tendency to myopia
In a poor, inland, gang-infested part of Los Angeles, there is a clinic for people with type I diabetes. As part of the country health care system, it serves persons who have fallen through all other safety-net options, the poorest of the poor. Although type II diabetes is rampant in this part of town, type I diabetes exists as well. Yet these latter individuals generally lack access to any specialty care—a type of treatment they desperately need due to a complexity of dealing with type 1 diabetes in the setting of poverty and psychosocial stress. The Type I Clinic meets one morning per week and is staffed by four endocrinology fellows and a diabetologist, often me. I have the unique perspective of working part of the time in a county setting and the other part of the time in a clinic for people with health insurance, in Beverly Hills. I know what is possible in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. East Los Angeles teaches me what happens when access to care is not available. Most of our patients, in their 20s and 30s and 40s, already have complications of their diabetes; many near end stage. Concepts about maintaining near-normal blood glucose levels often miss their mark—lack of education or money or motivation or factors I can't even imagine make the necessity of a patient acting as his or her own exogenous pancreas nearly impossible, especially when there are acute consequences to hypoglycemia and few to moderate hyperglycemia. Historically, in spite of these barriers, we persisted and thought we made a difference. Often, teaching simple carbohydrate counting or switching therapy to long-acting insulin improved patients control and their quality of life. The fellows felt they made a positive impact in the health of their patients. Driving home I would be encouraged by what we had accomplished, although saddened by the severity of the complications suffered by many of our patients. Yet everything changed with the recession of 2008. In Beverly Hills I heard a lot about the demise of the financial markets. Patients of mine had invested with Bermie Madoff. Some, once billionaires, were now millionaires. Personal assistants and housekeepers were laid off, vacation homes were put on the market, and parties became less lavish. But all still live in safe, clean homes, wear designer clothes, and eat high-quality food. The landscape is very different for many of my East LA patterns. The temporary, part-time jobs they had cobbled together to keep food on the table and pay for housing are gone. I — naively — didn't realize how much worse poverty could get. But now many of our patients are young without food and are becoming homeless. One young man, a college student trying to work his way out of poverty by going to school, lost his job and is living in his car. He is still taking classes but is unable to afford more than a dollar meal from a fast-food restaurant once every day or two. Management of his diabetes involves simply keeping him alive with his erratic, poor eating habit.
50.At the beginning, the author describes the patients with an emphasis on______.
(A)their financial status
(B)their living in injustice
(C)their specialty care of any kind
(D)their ignorance of type I diabetes
51.As a diabetologist working for the Type I Clinic, the author is quite concerned about those who ______.
(A)misunderstand the concepts on blood glucose maintenance
(B)have no ideas about what medical problem they are having
(C)don't care about acting as their own exogenous pancreas
(D)lack access to property and sufficient clinical care
52.Not until the recession of 2008 did the medical staff______.
(A)feel proud of their dedication and persistence in clinical practice
(B)know how severe the complications of type I diabetes could be
(C)regret about more they could have done for the patients
(D)feel a sense of accomplishments in treating the patients
53.As witnessed by the dialectologist during the recession of 2008, many poor patients______.
(A)developed poor eating habits with the progression of type I diabetes
(B)struggled with their survival, let alone with their medical care
(C)became loser in the investment with Bernie Madoff
(D)switched from full-time to part-time jobs
54.Which of the following tones does the passage most probably carry?
(A)Indifference.
(B)Sympathy.
(C)Passion.
(D)Guilt.
Beyond the basic animal instincts to seek food and avoid pain, Freud identified two sources of psychic energy, which he called "drives": aggression and libido. The key to his theory is that these were unconscious drives, shaping our behavior without the mediation of our waking minds; they surface, heavily disguised, only in our dreams. The work of the past half-century in psychology and neuroscience has been to downplay the role of unconscious universal drives, focusing instead on rational processes in conscious life. But researchers have found evidence that Freud's drives really do exist, and they have their roots in the limbic system, a primitive part of the brain that operates mostly below the horizon of consciousness. Now more commonly referred to as emotions, the modern suite of drives comprises five: rage, panic, separation distress, lust and a variation on libido sometimes called seeking. The seeking drive is proving a particularly fruitful subject for researchers. Although like the others it originates in the limbic system, it also involves parts of the forebrain, the seat of higher mental functions. In the 1980s, Jaak Panksepp, a neurobiologist at Bowling Green State University in Ohio, became interested in a place near the cortex known as the ventral tegmental area, which in humans lies just above the hairline. When Panksepp stimulated the corresponding region in a mouse, the animal would sniff the air and walk around, as though it were looking for something. Was it hungry? No. The mouse would walk right by a plate of food, or for that matter any other object Panksepp could think of. This brain tissue seemed to cause a general desire for something new. "What I was seeing, " he says, "was the urge to do stuff. " Panksepp called this seeking. To neuropsychologist Mark Solms of University College in London, that sounds very much like libido. "Freud needed some sort of general, appetitive desire to seek pleasure in the world of objects, " says Solms. "Panksepp discovered as a neuroscientist what Freud discovered psychologically. " Solms studied the same region of the brain for his work on dreams. Since the 1970s, neurologists have known that dreaming takes place during a particular form of sleep known as REM — rapid eye movement — which is associated with a primitive part of the brain known as the pons. Accordingly, they regarded dreaming as a low-level phenomenon of no great psychological interest. When Solms looked into it, though, it turned out that the key structure involved in dreaming was actually the ventral tegmental, the same structure that Panksepp had identified as the seat of the "seeking" emotion. Dreams, it seemed, originate with the libido—which is just what Freud had believed. Freud's psychological map may have been flawed in many ways, but it also happens to be the most coherent and, from the standpoint of individual experience, meaningful theory of the mind. "Freud should be placed in the same category as Darwin, who lived before the discovery of genes, " says Panksepp. "Freud gave us a vision of a mental apparatus. We need to talk about it, develop it, test it. " Perhaps it's not a matter of proving Freud wrong or right, but of finishing the job.
56.Freud believed that aggression and libido______.
(A)were the only two sources of psychic energy
(B)could sometimes surfact in our conscious life
(C)affected our behavior unconsciously
(D)could appear clearly on our dreams
57.Which of the following terms is equivalent to what Freud called libido?
(A)Emotion.
(B)Lust.
(C)Seeking
(D)Urge.
58.Jaak Panksepp's study on a mouse proves that the seeking drive______.
(A)originates in the limbic system
(B)involves parts of the forebrain
(C)controls how we respond to stimulus
(D)exists in many other animals
59.According to Mark Solms, dreaming______.
(A)takes place during the whole sleeping period
(B)involves a primitive part of the brain known as the pons
(C)originates in the forebrain
(D)just takes place in a certain period
60.It can be inferred that Freud and Darwin are similar in that their theories______.
(A)have long been discredited
(B)provided good guide for further research
(C)are placed in the same category
(D)are concerned about human being
Less than a year ago, a new generation of diet pills seemed to offer the long sought answer to our chronic weight problems. Hundreds of thousands of pound-conscious Americans had discovered that a drug combination known as "fen-phen" could shut off voracious (贪吃的) appetites like magic, and the FDA had just approved a new drug, Redux, that did the same with fewer side effects. Redux would attract hundreds of thousands of new pill poppers within a few months. But now the diet-drug revolution is facing a backlash. Some of the nation's largest HMOs, including Aetna U. S. Healthcare and Prudential Healthcare have begun cutting back or eliminating reimbursement (退款补偿,报销) for both pills. Diet chains like Jenny Craig and Nutri/System are backing away from them too. Several states, meanwhile, have restricted the use of fen-phen. Last week the Florida legislature banned new prescriptions entirely and called on doctors to wean (使断绝) current patients from the drug within 30 days. It also put a 90-day limit on Redux prescriptions. Even New Jersey doctor Sheldon Levine, who touted Redux last year on TV and in his book The Redux Revolution, has stopped giving it to all but his most obese (肥胖的) patients. The reason for all the retrenchment (紧缩,删节): potentially lethal side effects. Over the summer, the FDA revealed that 82 patients had developed defects in their heart values while on fen-phen, and that seven patients had come down with the same condition on Redux. As if that weren't bad enough, physicians reported that a woman who had been taking fen-phen for less than a month died of primary pulmonary hypertension, a sometimes fatal lung condition already associated with Redux. And an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association last month confirmed earlier reports that both fen-phen and Redux can cause brain damage in lab animals. These findings led the New England Journal to publish editorial admonishing doctors to prescribe the drugs only for patients with severe obesity. Meanwhile, FDA asked drug makers to put more explicit warnings on fen-phen and Redux labels. Since mid-July, prescriptions for fen-phen have dropped 56%, and those for Redux 36%, according to IMS America, a pharmaceutical market research firm. All that really does, however, is to bring the numbers down to where they should have been all along. Manufacturers said from the start that their pills offered a short-term therapy for the obese, not for people looking to fit into a smaller bathing suit. FDA approved Redux with just such a caveat, and when limited to these patients, the drugs may still make sense—despite the risks—because morbid obesity carries its own dangers, including heart disease, diabetes and stroke. Too often, however, Redux and fen-phen were peddled to all comers, almost like candy. The current backlash, says Levine, is a "roller coaster that never should have happened".
62.What does the phrase "pill poppers" in the first paragraph mean?
(A)pill distributors
(B)pill manufacturers
(C)pill promoters
(D)pill takers and abusers
63.The worst case that revealed the fatal dark side of the diet pills is______.
(A)82 patients on fen-phen and seven on Redux had developed heart disease
(B)a woman patient on fen-phen had died of abnormally high blood pressure
(C)a woman patient on fen-phen had died of a lung disease
(D)both diet pills have caused brain damage
64.New England Journal admonished doctors to______.
(A)give the pills only to the severely overweight persons
(B)take the obese patients off the drugs completely
(C)reduce prescriptions of the pills drastically
(D)put clearer warnings on the drug labels
65.According to the drug manufacturers, the pills______.
(A)only offer temporary treatment for patients with morbid obesity
(B)are meant for all the people who yearn for slimness
(C)are the best cure to our chronic weight problems
(D)are the most important weight-loss discoveries
66.We can infer from the last paragraph that______.
(A)the severe obesity carries the potential of illness
(B)the pills were sold to all comers without discrimination
(C)the pills may still be effective if properly administered
(D)the pills shouldn't have been hailed as miraculous cures and then discarded
写作---为题目类型
68.In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage. 近几十年来,许多国家的流行病学调查资料都表明,不少传染病的发病率和死亡率在不断下降,而癌症的发病率和死亡率却在不断上升。大量的调查研究表明,癌症等疾病的发病率的上升都与环境污染有关。由于环境污染对人体的作用一般具有剂量小、作用时间长等特点,所以容易被人们所忽视,往往病发之日,尚不知谁是元凶。环境污染就像邪恶的阴影,悄悄吞噬着人体的健康。 大气污染以及日益严重的雾霾天气与肺癌之间的正向关联性,目前已得到国内外诸多专家和权威组织的证实。 加拿大渥太华大学曾对美国50个州和波多黎各地区的18万名非吸烟者进行了长达26年的跟踪研究,并发现PM2.5与肺癌之间存在明显相关性。研究数据表明,空气污染与肺癌的产生和死亡率有密切关系,污染越严重,肺癌越多,死亡率越高,反之则越少和越低。PM2.5浓度每增加10微克每立方米,肺癌死亡率增加15%~27%,本身具有肺部疾病的人肺癌的死亡率更高。 研究认为,污染空气中的微小颗粒可以通过炎症伤害肺并损害DNA,这可能是引起非吸烟者患肺癌并死亡的直接原因。这项研究结果目前已在国际权威杂志上发表。 国际癌症研究机构的最新数据显示,全球2010年因肺癌死亡的患者中,有22.3万人与大气污染直接相关。为此,世界卫生组织已于2013年将“室外空气污染”列为一类致癌物,并将它视为迄今“最广泛传播的致癌物”。 作为雾霾天气“罪魁祸首”的细颗粒物,PM2.5主要来源于汽车尾气、工业生产排放的废气以及建筑工地和道路交通产生的扬尘。王凯说,PM2.5可以承载十几种致癌物质,其中多环芳烃与肺癌的患病率有明显相关性。 中国医学科学院肿瘤医院副院长石远凯也表示,研究表明,PM2.5被人体吸入肺部后,会直接导致肺泡弹性降低、功能减弱,甚至诱发肺纤维化,影响肺泡换气功能。久而久之,肺部功能下降并导致严重的器质性病变,甚至引发肺癌。 “PM2.5的增高与肺癌发生越来越相关,并直接增加了罹患肺癌的风险。”中国工程院院士钟南山表示。为此,他从2012年全国两会开始,一直关注PM2.5的问题,并呼吁在全国范围内尽快启动对PM2.5的监测。 专家表示,想要有效控制肺癌的发生率和死亡率,摆脱“世界第一肺癌大国”这项帽子,科研、医疗、环保等多部门携手,打破现有僵局、出台有力措施已成当务之急。

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