2017年医学博士外语真题试卷一答案

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选词填空---为题目类型
1.Rheumatologist advises that those with ongoing aches and pains first seek medical help to______ the problem.
(A)affiliate
(B)alleviate
(C)aggravate
(D)accelerate
2.An allergy results when the body have a(n)______reaction to certain substances introduced to it.
(A)spontaneous
(B)negative
(C)adverse
(D)prompt
3.Diabetes is one of the most______and potentially dangerous diseases in the world.
(A)crucial
(B)virulent
(C)colossal
(D)prevalent
4.Generally, vaccine makers______the virus in fertilized chicken eggs in a process that can take four to six months.
(A)penetrate
(B)designate
(C)generate
(D)exaggerate
5.Drinking more water is good for the rest of your body, helping to lubricate joints and______toxins and impurities.
(A)screen out
(B)knock out
(C)flush out
(D)rule out
6.Despite their good service provided, most inns are less expensive than hotels of______standards.
(A)equivalent
(B)likely
(C)alike
(D)uniform
7.Chronic high-dose intake of vitamin A has been shown to have______effects on bones.
(A)adverse
(B)prevalent
(C)instant
(D)purposeful
8.According to the Geneva______no prisoners of war shall be subject to abuse.
(A)Customs
(B)Congresses
(C)Conventions
(D)Routines
9.Environmental officials insist that something be done to______acid rain.
(A)curb
(B)sue
(C)detoxify
(D)condemn
10.It is impossible to say how it will take place, because it will happen______, and it will not be a long process.
(A)spontaneously
(B)simultaneously
(C)principally
(D)approximately
近义词替换---为题目类型
11.The patient's condition has worsened since last night.
(A)improved
(B)returned
(C)deteriorated
(D)changed
12.Beijing Television-Station Transmitting Tower really looks magnificent at night when it's lit up.
(A)decorated
(B)illustrated
(C)illuminated
(D)entertained
13.Because of adverse weather conditions, the travelers stopped to camp.
(A)local
(B)unfamiliar
(C)good
(D)unfavorable
14.Inform the manager if you are on medication that makes you drowsy.
(A)uneasy
(B)sleepy
(C)guilty
(D)fiery
15.The period from 3, 000 to 1, 000 B. C. E. , when the use of bronze became common, is normally referred to as the Bronze Age.
(A)obvious
(B)significant
(C)necessary
(D)widespread
16.Diabetes is one of the most prevalent and potentially dangerous diseases in the world.
(A)crucial
(B)virulent
(C)colossal
(D)widespread
17.Likewise , soot and smoke from fire contain a multitude of carcinogens.
(A)a matter of
(B)a body of
(C)plenty of
(D)sort of
18.Many questions about estrogen's effects remain to be elucidated, and investigations are seeking answers through ongoing laboratory and clinical studies.
(A)implicated
(B)implied
(C)illuminated
(D)initiated
19.The defect occurs in the first eight weeks of pregnancy, though no one understands why.
(A)fault
(B)deviation
(C)discretion
(D)discrepancy
20.The applications of genetic engineering are abundant and choosing one appropriate for this case can be rather difficult.
(A)sufficient
(B)plentiful
(C)adequate
(D)countable
完形填空---为题目类型
It was the kind of research that gave insight into how flu strains could mutate so quickly. (One theory behind the 1918 version's sudden demise after wreaking so much devastation was that it mutated to a nonlethal form. ) The same branch of research concluded in 2005 that the 1918 flu started in birds before passing to humans. Parsing this animal-human【C1】______could provide clues to【C2】______the next potential superflu, which already has a name: H5N1, also known as avian flu or bird flu. This potential killer also has a number: 59 percent. According to the World Health Organization, nearly three-fifths of the people who【C3】______H5N1 since 2003 died from the virus, which was first reported【C4】______humans in Hong Kong in 1997 before a more serious【C5】______occurred in Southeast Asia between 2003 and 2004. (It has since spread to Africa and Europe. ) Some researchers argue that those mortality numbers are exaggerated because WHO only【C6】______cases in which victims are sick enough to go to the hospital for treatment【C7】______compare that to the worldwide mortality rate of the 1918 pandemic; it may have killed roughly 50 million people, but that was only 10 percent of the number of people infected, according to a 2006 estimate. H5N1's saving grace — and the only reason we're not running around masked up in public right now — is that the strain doesn't jump from birds to humans, or from humans to humans, easily. There have been just over 600 cases (and 359 deaths) since 2003. But【C8】______its lethality, and the chance it could turn into something far more transmissible, one might expect H5N1 research to be exploding, with labs【C9】______the virus's molecular components to understand how it spreads between animals and【C10】______to humans, and hoping to discover a vaccine that could head off a pandemic.
21.【C1】
(A)interact
(B)interface
(C)connection
(D)contamination
22.【C2】
(A)stopping
(B)stopped
(C)have stopped
(D)stop
23.【C3】
(A)contacted
(B)contracted
(C)concentrated
(D)infected
24.【C4】
(A)on
(B)in
(C)of
(D)with
25.【C5】
(A)breakout
(B)take place
(C)happen
(D)outbreak
26.【C6】
(A)accounts
(B)numbers
(C)counts
(D)takes
27.【C7】
(A)Moreover
(B)Still
(C)Furthermore
(D)Thereafter
28.【C8】
(A)given
(B)giving
(C)to give
(D)speaking of
29.【C9】
(A)parsing
(B)parsed
(C)to parse
(D)having parsed
30.【C10】
(A)presently
(B)potentially
(C)potently
(D)importantly
阅读理解---为题目类型
If you are reading this article, antibiotics have probably saved your life—and not once but several times. A rotten tooth, a knee operation, a brush with pneumonia; any number of minor infections that never turned nasty. You may not remember taking the pills, so unremarkable have these one-time wonder drugs become. Modern medicine relies on antibiotics — not just to cure diseases, but to augment the success of surgery, childbirth and cancer treatments. Yet now health authorities are warning, in uncharacteristically apocalyptic terms, that the era of antibiotics is about to end. In some ways, bacteria are continually evolving to resist the drugs. But in the past we've always developed new ones that killed them again. Not this time. Infections that once succumbed to everyday antibiotics now require last-resort drugs with unpleasant side effects. Others have become so difficult to treat that they kill some 25, 000 Europeans yearly. And some bacteria now resist every known antibiotic. Regular readers will know why: New Scientist has reported warnings about this for years. We have misused antibiotics appallingly, handing them out to humans like medicinal candy and feeding them to livestock by the tonne, mostly not for health reasons but to make meat cheaper. Now antibiotic-resistant bacteria can be found all over the world — not just in medical facilities, but everywhere from muddy puddles in India to the snows of Antarctica (南极洲) . How did we reach this point without viable successors to today's increasingly ineffectual drugs? The answer lies not in evolution but economics. Over the past 20 years, nearly every major pharmaceutical company has abandoned antibiotics. Companies must make money, and there isn't much in short-term drugs that should be used sparingly. So researchers have discovered promising candidates, but can't reach into the deep pockets needed to develop them. This can be fixed. As we report this week, regulatory agencies, worried medical bodies and Big Pharma are finally hatching ways to remedy this market failure. Delinking profits from the volume of drug sold (by adjusting patent rights, say, or offering prizes for innovation) has worked for other drugs, and should work for antibiotics — although there may be a worryingly long wait before they reach the market. One day, though, these will fall to resistance too. Ultimately, we need, evolution-proof cures for bacterial infection: treatments that stop bacteria from causing disease, but don't otherwise inconvenience the little blighters. When resisting drugs confers no selective advantage, drugs will stop breeding resistance. Researchers have a couple of candidates for such treatment. But they fear regulators will drag their feet over such radical approaches. That, too, can be fixed. We must not neglect development of the sustainable medicine we need, the way we have neglected simple antibiotic R&D. If we do, one day another top doctor will be telling us that the drugs no longer work—and there really will be no help on the way.
32.In the first paragraph, the author is trying to______.
(A)warn us against the rampant abuse of antibiotics everywhere
(B)suggest a course of action to reduce antibiotic resistance
(C)tell us a time race between humans and bacteria
(D)remind us of the universal benefit of antibiotics
33.The warning from health authorities implies that______.
(A)the pre-antibiotic era will return
(B)the antibiotic crisis is about to repeat
(C)the wonder drugs are a double-edged sword
(D)the development of new antibiotics is too slow
34.The appalling misuse of antibiotics, according to the passage, ______.
(A)has developed resistant bacteria worldwide
(B)has been mainly practiced for health reasons
(C)has been seldom reported as a warning in the world
(D)has been particularly worsened in the developing countries
35.The market failure refers to______.
(A)the inability to develop more powerful antibiotics
(B)the existing increasingly ineffectual drugs in the market
(C)the poor management of the major pharmaceutical companies
(D)the deprived investment in developing new classes of antibiotics
36.During the presentation of the two solutions, the author carries a tone of______.
(A)doubt
(B)urgency
(C)indifference
(D)helplessness
Where one stage of child development has been left out, or not sufficiently experienced, the child may have to go back and capture the experience of it. A good home makes this possible, for example by providing the opportunity for the child to play with a clockwork car or toy railway train up to any age if he still needs to do so. This principle, in fact, underlies all psychological treatment of children in difficulties with their development, and is the basis of work in child clinics. The beginnings of discipline are in the nursery. Even the youngest baby is taught by gradual stages to wait for food, to sleep and wake at regular intervals and so on. If the child feels the world around him is a warm and friendly one, he slowly accepts its rhythm and accustoms himself to conforming to its demands. Learning to wait for things, particularly for food, is a very important element in upbringing, and is achieved successfully only if too great demands are not made before the child can understand them. Every parent watches eagerly the child's acquisition of each new skill—the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing. It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feeling of failure and states of anxiety in the child. This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural zest for life and his desire to find out new things for himself. Learning together is a fruit source of relationship between children and parents. By playing together, parents learn more about their children and children learn more from their parents. Toys and games which both parents and children can share are an important means of achieving this co-operation. Building-block toys, jigsaw puzzles and crossword are good examples. Parents vary greatly in their degree of strictness or indulgence towards their children. Some may be especially strict in money matters, others are severe over times of coming home at night, punctuality for meals or personal cleanliness. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child's own happiness and well-being.
38.The principle underlying all treatment of developmental difficulties in children______.
(A)is to send them to clinics
(B)offers recapture of earlier experiences
(C)is in the provision of clockwork toys and trains
(D)is to capture them before they are sufficiently experienced
39.The child in the nursery______.
(A)quickly learns to wait for food
(B)doesn't initially sleep and wake at regular intervals
(C)always accepts the rhythm of the world around them
(D)always feels the world around him is warm and friendly
40.The encouragement of children to achieve new skills______.
(A)can never be taken too far
(B)should be left to school teachers
(C)will always assist their development
(D)should be balanced between two extremes
41.Jigsaw puzzles are______.
(A)too difficult for children
(B)a kind of building-block toy
(C)not very entertaining for adults
(D)suitable exercises for parent-child cooperation
42.Parental controls and discipline______.
(A)serve a dual purpose
(B)should be avoided as much as possible
(C)reflect the values of the community
(D)are designed to promote the child's happiness
For 150 years scientists have tried to determine the solar constant, the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth. Yet, even in the most cloud-free regions of the planet, the solar constant cannot be measured precisely. Gas molecules and dust particles in the atmosphere absorb and scatter sunlight and prevent some wavelengths of the light from ever reaching the ground. With the advent of satellites, however, scientists have finally been able to measure the Sun's output without being impeded by the Earth's atmosphere. Solar Max, a satellite from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been measuring the Sun's output since February 1980. Although a malfunction in the satellite's control system limited its observation for a few years, the satellite was repaired in orbit by astronauts from the space shuffle in 1984. Max's observations indicate that the solar constant is not really constant after all. The satellite's instruments have detected frequent, small variations in the Sun's energy output, generally amounting to no more than 0. 05 percent of the Sun's mean energy output and lasting from a few days to a few weeks. Scientists believe these fluctuations coincide with the appearance and disappearance of large groups of sunspots on the Sun's disk. Sunspots are relatively dark regions on the Sun's surface that have strong magnetic fields and a temperature about 2, 000 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. Particularly large fluctuations in the solar constant have coincided with sightings of large sunspot groups. In 1980, for example, Solar Max's instruments registered a 0. 3 percent drop in the solar energy reaching the Earth. At that time a sunspot group covered about 0. 6 percent of the solar disk, an area 20 times larger than the Earth's surface. Long-term variations in the solar constant are more difficult to determine. Although Solar Max's data have indicated a slow and steady decline in the Sun's output. Some scientists have thought that the satellite's aging detectors might have become less sensitive over the years, thus falsely indicating a drop in the solar constant. This possibility was dismissed, however, by comparing solar Max's observations with data from a similar instrument operating on NASA's Nimbus 7 weather satellite since 1978.
44.According to the passage, scientists believe variations in the solar constant are related to______.
(A)sunspot activity
(B)unusual weather patterns
(C)increased levels of dust
(D)fluctuations in the Earth's temperature
45.Why is it not possible to measure the solar constant accurately without a satellite?
(A)The Earth is too far from the Sun.
(B)Some areas on Earth receive more solar energy than others.
(C)There is not enough sunlight during the day.
(D)The Earth's atmosphere interferes with the sunlight.
46.Why did scientists think that Solar Max might be giving unreliable information?
(A)Solar Max did not work for the first few years.
(B)Solar Max's instruments were getting old.
(C)The space shuttle could not fix Solar Max's instruments.
(D)Nimbus 7 interfered with Solar Max's detectors.
47.The attempt to describe the solar constant can best be described as______.
(A)an ongoing research effort
(B)a question that can never be answered
(C)an issue that has been resolved
(D)historically interesting, but irrelevant to contemporary concerns
48.What does this passage mainly discuss?
(A)The components of the Earth's atmosphere,
(B)The launching of a weather satellite.
(C)The measurement of variations in the solar constant.
(D)The interaction of sunlight and air pollution.
Optical illusions are like magic, thrilling us because of their capacity to reveal the fallibility of our senses. But there's more to them than that, according to Dr. Beau Lotto, who is wowing the scientific world with work that crosses the boundaries of art, neurology, natural history and philosophy. What they reveal, he says, is that the whole world is the creation of our brain. What we see, what we hear, feel and what we think we know is not a photographic reflection of the world, but an instantaneous unthinking calculation as to what is the most useful way of seeing the world. It's a best guess based on the past experience of the individual, a long evolutionary past that has shaped the structure of our brains. The world is literally shaped by our pasts. Dr. Lotto, 40, an American who is a reader in neuroscience at University College London, has set out to prove it in stunning visual illusions, sculptures and installations, which have been included in art-science exhibitions. He explains his complex ideas from the starting point of visual illusions, which far from revealing how fragile our senses are show how remarkably robust they are at providing a picture of the world that serves a purpose to us. For centuries, artists and scientists have noted that a grey dot looks lighter against a dark background than being against a light background. The conventional belief was that it was because of some way the brain and eye is intrinsically wired. But Dr. Lotto believes it's a learnt response; in other words, we see the world not as it is but as it is useful to us. "Context is everything, because our brains have evolved to constantly re-define normality, " says Dr. Lotto. "What we see is defined by our own experiences of the past, but also by what the human race has experienced through its history, " This is illustrated by the fact that different cultures and communities have different viewpoints of the world, conditioned over generations. For example, Japanese people have a famous inability to distinguish between the "R" and the "L" sound. This arises because in Japanese the sounds are totally interchangeable. "Differentiating between them has never been useful, so the brain has never learnt to do it. It's not just that Japanese people find it hard to tell the difference. They literally cannot hear the difference. " Dr. Lotto's experiments are grounding more and more hypotheses in hard science. "Yes, my work is idea-driven, " he says. "But lots of research, such as MRI brain scanning, is technique-driven. I don't believe you can understand the brain by taking it out of its natural environment and looking at it in a laboratory. You have to look at what it evolved to do, and look at it in relationship to its ecology. "
50.What does the word "them" in the first paragraph refer to?
(A)Human senses.
(B)The fallibility of senses.
(C)Revealing capacity.
(D)Optical illusions.
51.According to the passage, what is known about Dr. Beau Lotto?
(A)Though he is a neuroscientist, he has shocked the scientific world with his extensive research in art, neurology, natural history and philosophy.
(B)Dr. Lotto is a professor at University College London who is specialized in a number of disciplines such as art, neurology, natural history and philosophy.
(C)Dr. Lotto has been attempting to exhibit his creative productions in art-science exhibitions in the hope of proving his idea on optical illusions.
(D)Dr. Lotto has set out to create visual illusions, sculptures and installations which well combined the knowledge of art, neurology, natural history and philosophy.
52.Which of the following statements can be inferred from Dr. Lotto's study?
(A)People should believe their brains rather than their eyes as the world, to a great measure, is created and shaped by human brain.
(B)People should never believe their senses for what they see, hear, feel, and the truth may be contrary to the photographic image of the world.
(C)People should never believe their eyes for what they see are only accidental and temporary forms of the world, which varies in accordance with contexts.
(D)People should be aware that their eyes can play tricks on them as what they see is actually created by their brains which are shaped by their past experiences.
53.According to Dr. Lotto, what is the reason for the fact that a grey dot looks lighter against a dark background than being against a light background?
(A)It is a fact that the dot emerged to be lighter against a dark background than being against a light one.
(B)Human senses are remarkably robust at providing a picture of the world that serves a purpose to us through what they have learnt from past experiences.
(C)It is because of some way the brain and eye is intrinsically wired.
(D)Because the context in which the little dot placed has changed to be lighter.
54.Which of the following statements is true about the research in neuroscience?
(A)Investigation on the brain involves scrutinizing a network in which both environment and the brain itself function together.
(B)Both idea-driven and technique-driven are popular research methods in research study in neuroscience.
(C)People cannot carry out research study on brain in laboratory where it is isolated from human body.
(D)Brain can be investigated in isolation with other faculties and organs as long as the research is carried out in proper natural context.
The biggest thing in operating rooms these days is a million-dollar, multi-armed robot named da Vinci, used in nearly 400, 000 surgeries nationwide last year—triple the number just four years earlier. But now the high-tech helper is under scrutiny over reports of problems, including several deaths that may be linked with it and the high cost of using the robotic system. There also have been a few disturbing, freak incidents: a robotic hand that wouldn't let go of tissue grasped during surgery and a robotic arm hitting a patient in the face as she lay on the operating table. Is it time to curb the robot enthusiasm? Some doctors say yes, concerned that the "wow" factor and heavy marketing have boosted use. They argue that there is not enough robust research showing that robotic surgery is at least as good or better than conventional surgeries. Many U. S. hospitals promote robotic surgery in patient brochures, online and even on highway billboards. Their aim is partly to attract business that helps pay for the costly robot. The da Vinci is used for operations that include removing prostates, gallbladders and wombs, repairing heart valves, shrinking stomachs and transplanting organs. Its use has increased worldwide, but the system is most popular in the United States. For surgeons, who control the robot while sitting at a computer screen rather than standing over the patient, these operations can be less tiring. Plus robot hands don't shake. Advocates say patients sometimes have less bleeding and often are sent home sooner than with conventional laparoscopic surgeries and operations involving large incisions. But the Food and Drug Administration is looking into a spike in reported problems during robotic surgeries. Earlier this year, the FDA began a survey of surgeons using the robotic system. The agency conducts such surveys of devices routinely, but FDA spokeswoman Synim Rivers said the reason for it now "is the increase in number of reports received" about da Vinci. Reports filed since early last year include at least five deaths. Whether there truly are more problems recently is uncertain. Rivers said she couldn't quantify the increase and that it may simply reflect more awareness among doctors and hospitals about the need to report problems. Doctors aren't required to report such things; device makers and hospitals are. Company spokesman Geoff Curtis said Intuitive Surgical has physician-educators and other trainers who teach surgeons how to use the robot. But they don't train them how to do specific procedures robotically, he said, and that it's up to hospitals and surgeons to decide "if and when a surgeon is ready to perform robotic cases. " A 2010 New England Journal of Medicine essay by a doctor and a health policy analyst said surgeons must do at least 150 procedures to become adept at using the robotic system. But there is no expert consensus on how much training is needed. New Jersey banker Alexis Grattan did a lot of online research before her gallbladder was removed last month at Hackensack University Medical Center. She said the surgeon's many years of experience with robotic operations was an important factor. She also had heard that the surgeon was among the first to do the robotic operation with just one small incision in the belly button, instead of four cuts in conventional keyhole surgery.
56.Why did FDA begin to scrutinize da Vinci?
(A)The number used in operation has been tripled.
(B)It is too expensive.
(C)It is reported to have frequent mechanical breakdown.
(D)Lawsuits increase with death case reports.
57.According to some doctors, which of the following is NOT the reason to curb the enthusiasm for da Vinci?
(A)The high cost causes unreasonable marketing.
(B)It is not as good as traditional surgeries.
(C)It needs more statistics to prove its value.
(D)It is necessary for doctors to consider some problems.
58.What does FDA spokeswoman Synim Rivers mean?
(A)Doctors and hospitals should be responsible for those problems.
(B)It is doctors that think da Vinci robots are problematic.
(C)There are so many problems reports that FDA has to do an enquiry.
(D)FDA hasn't finished the previous enquiry about the surgeons who used robots.
59.What is correct about training according to the Geoff Curtis?
(A)A lack of sufficient training on the part of surgeons.
(B)A lack of sufficient training on the part of company.
(C)Doctors and hospitals are not sufficiently trained on specific procedures.
(D)Doctors and hospitals are not sufficiently trained on how to used robots.
60.What is the best title for this passage?
(A)Four Hands Better than Two?
(B)Too Good to Be True
(C)Smart Robots
(D)Who Is the Killer?
Despite Denmark's manifest virtues, Danes never talk about how proud they are to be Danes. This would sound weird in Danish. When Danes talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self-indulgence of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say, "Denmark is a great country. " You're supposed to figure this out for yourself. It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budget goes toward smoothing out life's inequalities, and there is plenty of money for schools, day care, retraining programmers, job seminars—Danes love seminars: three days at a study centre hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite all the English that Danish absorbs — there is no Danish Academy to defend against it — old dialects persist in Jutland that can barely be understood by Copenhageners. It is land where, as the saying goes, "Few have too much and fewer have too little, "and a foreigner is struck by the sweet egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr. and Mrs. It's a nation of recyclers—about 55% of Danish garbage gets made into something new—and no nuclear power plants. It's a nation of tireless planners. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general. Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it comes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nice clean line, town here, country there. It is not a nation of jay-walkers. People stand on the curb and wait for the red light to change, even if it's 2 a. m. and there's not a car in sight. However, Danes don't think of themselves as a waiting-at-2. a. m. -for-the-green-light people—that's how they see Swedes and Germans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers, more free spirited than Swedes, but the truth is (though one should not say it) that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few natural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic Stares, and Russia. Airports, seaports, highways, and rail lines are ultramodern and well-maintained. The orderliness of the society doesn't mean that Danish lives are less messy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Dane would tell you so. You can hear plenty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society cannot exempt its members from the hazards of life. But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldn't feel bad for taking what you're entitled to, you're as good as anyone else. The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your job, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.
62.The author thinks that Danes adopt a______attitude towards their country.
(A)boastful
(B)modest
(C)deprecating
(D)mysterious
63.Which of the following is NOT a Danish characteristic cited in the passage?
(A)Fondness of foreign culture.
(B)Equality in society.
(C)Linguistic tolerance.
(D)Persistent planning.
64.According to the passage, Danish orderliness______.
(A)sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes
(B)spares Danes social troubles besetting other people
(C)is considered economically essential to the country
(D)prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles
65.At the end of the passage the author states all the following EXCEPT that______.
(A)Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits
(B)Danes take for granted what is given to them
(C)the open system helps to tide the country over
(D)orderliness has alleviated unemployment
66.What does "manifest" in the first paragraph mean?
(A)Announce.
(B)Hide.
(C)Brag.
(D)Obvious.
写作---为题目类型
68.In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage. 近几十年来,许多国家的流行病学调查资料都表明,不少传染病的发病率和死亡率在不断下降,而癌症的发病率和死亡率却在不断上升。大量的调查研究表明,癌症等疾病的发病率的上升都与环境污染有关。由于环境污染对人体的作用一般具有剂量小、作用时间长等特点,容易被人们所忽视。往往病发之日尚不知谁是元凶。环境污染就像邪恶的阴影,悄悄吞噬着人体的健康。 肺及呼吸道是一个开放器官,与外界直接接触,外界很多致癌因素都可以导致肺癌。环境污染就是导致肺癌的一个重要原因。 环境污染中最为重要的就是大气污染。大气污染的许多学者惊奇地发现,近50年来,随着工业和经济的发展、人们生活水平的提高,肺癌的发病率也显著提高,特别是世界经济发达地区的患者成倍地增加。例如,美国的病人在50年中,男性增加了18倍,女性增加了6倍。每4名癌症死亡病例中,就有1名是肺癌患者;每100名死亡病人中。有5名死于肺癌。就我国情况看,也:有明显增加的趋势。上海市卢湾区1971年比1952年死亡率增长9.65倍;北京城区1975年比1958年死亡率增长2.5倍。从全国恶性肿瘤排列顺序来看,肺癌占第5位;每100名癌症病人中,大约有8名是肺癌。 肺癌是最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,据WHO统计,每年全球估计有120万以上新发肺癌病例,死亡约110万人,平均每隔30s就有人死于肺癌。近年来,我国肺癌发病率及死亡率亦不断上升。国内外流行病学研究报告称,大气污染易诱发肺癌而使死亡率增高。 在公认的大气污染物中,颗粒物与人群健康效应终点的流行病学联系最为密切。把颗粒物对健康的危害做定量评价,近年来已成为WHO、欧盟等国际机构关注的热点之一。美国规定可吸入颗粒物(PM10)的日均值及年均值分别为0.15与0.05 mg/m3,我国1996年颁布的GB3095—1996规定PM10的二级标准为日均值为0.15 mg/m,年均值为0.10 mg/m。1997年,美国国家环境保护局(EPA)率先推出PM2.5标准,严格规定日均值为0.065 mg/m3,年均值为0.015 mg/m3。 PM10与PM2.5都可增加患肺癌的危险。美国的研究表明,硫酸盐、硝酸盐、氢离子、元素碳、二次有机化合物及过渡金属都富集在细颗粒物上,而Ca、Al、Mg、Fe等元素则主要富集在粗颗粒物上,它们对人体的影响不同。PM2.5对人体的危害比PM10大,已成为环境空气控制政策的新目标。随着交通的发展、机动车辆的增加、环境的日益破坏,PM2.5污染越来越严重。研究发现,大气中PM2.5在总悬浮颗粒物中的比率逐年增加,沉积在下呼吸道的96%颗粒物是PM2.5。城市大气中PM2.5主要来自于交通废气排放(18%~54%)及气溶胶二次污染(30%~41%)。 可以看出,环境污染与我们的健康有着重要的关系。我们必须全力以赴保护环境,因为保护环境就是保护自己!

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